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NUTRITION

FOOD IS ESSENTIAL FOR ALL LIVING ORGANISMS . CARBOHYDRATES , PROTEINS , FATS , VITAMINS AND MINERALS ARE ALL IMPORTANT COMPONENT OF OUR FOOD . THESE COMPONENT OF FOOD ARE NECESSARY FOR OUR BODY AND ARE CALLED NUTRIENTS.

WHAT IS NUTRIENTS ?

NUTRIENTS ARE IMPORTANT COMPONENTS OF FOOD THAT ENABLE LIVING ORGANISMS TO BUILD THEIR BODIES , TO GROW , TO REPAIR DAMAGED PARTS OF THEIR BODIES AND TO PROIDE THE ENERGY TO CARRYOUT LIFE PROCESS.

WHAT IS NUTRITION ?

THE PROCESS, OF OBTAINING , AND UTILISING, FOOD BY A LIVING ORGANISM KNOWN AS NUTRITION.

NOTE =  THE PROCESS OF OBTAINING AND UTILISING FOOD IN ALL ORGANISM, IS NOT SAME.

MODE OF NUTRITION 

ON THE BASIS OF FOOD HABITS, THE MODES OF NUTRITION IN PLANTS HAVE BEEN DIVIDED INTO TWOCATEGORIES:

  AUTOTROPHIC NUTRITION

        IT IS THE MODE OF NUTRITION IN WHICH ORGANISMS CAN MAKE THEIR OWN FOODS FROM SIMPLE RAW MATERIALS.

EXAMPLE = ALL GREEN PLANTS AND SOME BACTERIA.

NOTE = AUTO SELF , TROPHE = NUTRITION.

HETEROTROPHIC NUTRITION

IT IS THE MODE OF NUTRITION IN WHICH ORTGANISMS CAN NOT PREPARE THEIR OWN FOOD ON THEIR OWN AND DEPEND ON OTHERS FOR IT. 

EXAMPLE = ALL ANIMALS AND FEW PLANTS.

NOTE = IN GREEK HETERONE = AN OTHER.

YOU DON”T KNOW ?

EUGLENA IS AN ORGANISM THAT SHOWS BOTH AUTOTROPHIC AND HETEROTROPHIC MODES  OF NUTRITION. IT HAS BOTH PLANTS AND ANIMAL LIKE FEATURES.

HOW ARE NUTRIENTS REPLENISHED IN THE SOIL ?

PLANTS REMOVE NUTRIENTS FROM THE SOIL AS THEY GROW . THESE NUTRIENTS NEED TO BE REINTRODUCED INTO  THE SOIL SO THAT THE SOIL REMAINS PRODUCTIVE. FARMERS USUALLY ENRICH THE SOIL BY ADDING MANURES AND FERTILLISERS.

IN A FOREST WHERE NO ONE GO TO ADD FERTILISERS, THE DECOMPOSITION OF DEAD LEAVES, AND OTHER PLANT AND ANIMAL MATTER ENRICHES THE SOIL WITH NUTRIENTS.

SOME REPEATABLE QUESTIONS FROM THIS CHAPTER IN EXAM.

# What is plant nutrition?

Plant nutrition is the study of elements and compounds necessary for plant growth, metabolism and external supply. A plant cannot complete its life cycle in its absence.

# What is the main mode of nutrition in plants?

The main mode of nutrition in plants is the autotrophic mode of nutrition. Plants have chlorophyll in their leaves which helps them to produce their own food.

# What are the different types of heterotrophic nutrition in plants?

Some plants do not have chlorophyll and depend upon other plants for their food. Such plants exhibit a heterotrophic mode of nutrition and are known as heterotrophic plants. For eg., parasitic plants, insectivorous plants, symbiotic plants and saprophytic plants.

# What are insectivorous plants?

Insectivorous plants are the plants that trap insects. Their leaves are modified into special structures which traps the insects and digest it with the help of digestive enzymes to derive nutrition from them.

# What are the important nutrients required by the plants?

Plants require two types of nutrients- macronutrients and micronutrients. Macronutrients include nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur. The micronutrients include boron, chlorine, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc.

# How are the nutrients absorbed by the plants?

Plants absorb nutrients through their roots. They transport nutrients and water up through the stem to the parts that are above ground level.

AUTOTROPHIC NUTRITION IN PLANTS

   PHOTOSYNTHESIS

THE PROCESS THROUGH PLANTS SYNTHESISE THEIR FOOD USING SIMPLE RAW MATERIALS IN THEIR LEAVES CALLED PHOTOSYNTHESIS.

NOTE = THE SYNTHESIS OF FOOD IN PLANTS OCCUR IN THEIR LEAVES. HENCE, LEAVES ARE CALLED THE FOOD FACTORIES OF THE PLANT.

              (PHOTO = LIGHT AND SYNTHESIS = TO COMBINE)

THIS PROCES CAN BE WRITTEN IN THE FORM OF THE FOLLOWING EQUATION:

NUTRITION IN PLANTS NUTRITION IN ANIMALS What is nutrition in animals nutrition in plants class 7 notes nutrition in plants class 7 extra questions with answers nutrition in plants class 7 ncert pdf Modes of nutrition in plants Class 7 NUTRITION IN PLANTS QUIZ

             RAW MATERIALS FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS

IT IS CLEARED THAT CARBONDIOXIDE AND WATER ARE THE RAW MATERIALS FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS. FOR THIS PROCESS, CHLOROPHYLL ANDS PRESENCE OF SUNLIGHT ARE ALSO NECESSARY.

                   WATER AND MINERALS

THESE ARE ABSORBED BY THE ROOTS FROM THE SOIL. FROM HERE, WATER AND MINERALS ARE TRANSPORTED TO OTHER PARTS OF THE PLANT.

                   CARBONDIOXIDE

PLANTS TAKE CARBON IOXIDE FROM THE ATMOSPHERE. CARBONDIOXIDE ENTERS THE LEAVES THROUGH TINY PORES PRESENT ON THE SURFACE OF LEAVES. SUCH PORES ARE CALLED STOMATA.

                   SUNLIGHT

SUNLIGHT IS THE ENERGY THAT COMES FROM THE SUN . DURING PHOTOSYNTHESIS THE PLANTS USE THE ENERGY OF SUNLIGHT TO PREPARE THEIR FOOD.

                   CHLOROPHYLL

THE LEAVES ARE FREEN DUE TO THE PRESENCE OF A PIGMENT—— CHLOROPHYKLL. IT HELPS THE LEAVES TO CAPTURE SOLAR ENERGY. THIS ENERGY IS USED TO PREPARE FOOD FROM CARBONDIOXIDE AND WATER.

Steps in Photosynthesis

  • Absorption of energy from sunlight
  • Conversion of light energy into chemical energy
  • Hydrolysis of water into oxygen and hydrogen
  • Carbon dioxide is reduced to form glucose by utilizing chemical energy

YOU ALSO READ : NUTRITION IN ANIMALS 

                                  PRODUCT OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS

THE INITIAL PRODUCT OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IS A CARBOHYDRATE–GLUCOSE. IT NEXT GETS CONVERTED TO STARCH WHOSE PRESENCE, IN THE LEAVES, INDICATES THE OCCURANCE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS.

YOU ALSO READ = PHOTOSYNTHESIS

               OTHER MODE OF NUTRITION

                                     HETEROTROPHIC NUTRITION

HETEROTROPHIC PLANTS

Listed below are different types of heterotrophic plants that are mainly classified based on their mode of nutrition:

  • Parasitic
  • Insectivorous
  • Saprophytic
  • Symbiotic


INSECTIVOROUS NUTRITION

   Some plants have special structural features that help them to trap insects and are commonly known as carnivorous or heterotrophic plants. These plants digest the insects by secreting digestive juices and absorb the nutrients from them. These plants grow on the soil that lacks minerals.

 EXAMPLE = PITCHER PLANT ETC.

SYMBIOTIC NUTRITION

         SOMETIMES TWO ORGANISMS LIVE IN CLOSE ASSOCIATION AND DEVELOP A RELATIONSHIP THAT IS BENEFICIAL TO BOTH . THIS IS CALLED THE SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP.

EXAMPLE =  LICHEN IS A LIVING PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN A FUNGUS AND AN ALGA ETC. 

PARASITIC NUTRITION

            MODE OF NUTRITION IN WHICH AN NON–GREEN PLANTS LIVE ON OTHER LIVING ORGANISMS AND OBTAIN THEIR FOOD FROM THEM.

EXAMPLE = CUSCUTA AND DODDER ETC.

SAPROPHYTIC NUTRITION

        MODE OF NUTRITION IN WHICH SOME PLANTS FEED ON DEAD AND DECAYING MTTER.

EXAMPLE = RHIZOPUS(BREAD MOULD) ETC.

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